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Logic

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  1. 0.2 hrs • 7/8/2016 • Unabridged

    This series will explain what aggregative properties are and also what emergent properties are, with examples given each of kind of property. Also explained is why, even though all emergent properties are aggregative properties, not all aggregative properties are emergent properties. It is further made clear that, strictly speaking, emergence is a property of one’s knowledge of a given kind of aggregate, and not of such aggregates themselves, this can explain why a property that is emergent at one time will, when additional information becomes available, cease to be emergent. And it is explained why, for this very reason, the right answer to the question “why does X exist?” is never “because X is an emergent property.”

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  2. 9.8 hrs • 3/1/2016 • Unabridged
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    Good Thinking

    9.8 hrs • 3/1/16 • Unabridged
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  3. 5.4 hrs • 8/1/2015 • Unabridged

    Thinkers have been fascinated by paradox since long before Aristotle grappled with Zeno’s. In this volume in the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series, Margaret Cuonzo explores paradoxes and the strategies used to solve them. She finds that paradoxes are more than mere puzzles but can prompt new ways of thinking. A paradox can be defined as a set of mutually inconsistent claims, each of which seems true. Paradoxes emerge not just in salons and ivory towers but in everyday life. (An Internet search for “paradox” brings forth a picture of an ashtray with a “no smoking” symbol inscribed on it.) Proposing solutions, Cuonzo writes, is a natural response to paradoxes. She invites us to rethink paradoxes by focusing on strategies for solving them, arguing that there is much to be learned from this, regardless of whether any of the more powerful paradoxes is even capable of solution. Cuonzo offers a catalog of paradox-solving strategies—including the Preemptive-Strike (questioning the paradox itself), the Odd-Guy-Out (calling one of the assumptions into question), and the You-Can’t-Get-There-from-Here (denying the validity of the reasoning). She argues that certain types of solutions work better in some contexts than others, and that as paradoxicality increases, the success of certain strategies grows more unlikely. Cuonzo shows that the processes of paradox generation and solution proposal are interesting and important ones. Discovering a paradox leads to advances in knowledge: new science often stems from attempts to solve paradoxes, and the concepts used in the new sciences lead to new paradoxes. As Niels Bohr wrote, “How wonderful that we have met with a paradox. Now we have some hope of making progress.”

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    Paradox by Margaret Cuonzo
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  4. 6.7 hrs • 4/23/2014 • Unabridged

    Think more critically, learn to question everything, and don't let your own brain trip you up.

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    Think

    6.7 hrs • 4/23/14 • Unabridged
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  5. 0 reviews 0 5 2 2 out of 5 stars 2/5
    33.9 hrs • 4/30/2013 • Unabridged

    Analogy is the core of all thinking. This is the simple but unorthodox premise that Pulitzer Prize-winning author Douglas Hofstadter and French psychologist Emmanuel Sander defend in their new work.  We are constantly faced with a swirling and intermingling multitude of ill-defined situations. Our brain’s job is to try to make sense of this unpredictable, swarming chaos of stimuli. How does it do so? The ceaseless hail of input triggers analogies galore, helping us to pinpoint the essence of what is going on. Often this means the spontaneous evocation of words, sometimes idioms, sometimes the triggering of nameless, long-buried memories. Why did two-year-old Camille proudly exclaim, “I undressed the banana!”? Why do people who hear a story often blurt out, “Exactly the same thing happened to me!” when it was a completely different event? How do we recognize an aggressive driver from a split-second glance in our rearview mirror? What in a friend’s remark triggers the offhand reply, “That’s just sour grapes”? What did Albert Einstein see that made him suspect that light consists of particles when a century of research had driven the final nail in the coffin of that long-dead idea? The answer to all these questions, of course, is analogy-making—the heart and soul of thought. Analogy-making, far from happening at rare intervals, occurs at all moments, defining thinking from top to toe, from the tiniest and most fleeting thoughts.

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    Surfaces and Essences

    33.9 hrs • 4/30/13 • Unabridged
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  6. 4.5 hrs • 10/12/2012 • Unabridged

    The Problems of Philosophy discusses Bertrand Russell’s views on philosophy and the problems that arise in the field. His views focus on knowledge rather than the metaphysical realm of philosophy. This book revolves around the central question that Russell asks in his opening line of chapter one: Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it? He examines this question by delving into the idea of reality versus appearance. For Russell and other philosophers who share his ideas it is sensory perception of the world around them that shapes their knowledge. It is in this work that he discusses his idea of sense-data to help explain the differences between appearance and reality. The Problems of Philosophy is Russell’s first attempt at recording and working through a theory of epistemology, which is the theory of the nature of human knowledge.

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    The Problems with Philosophy

    4.5 hrs • 10/12/12 • Unabridged
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  7. 2.3 hrs • 11/1/2009 • Abridged

    “New truth is often uncomfortable,” Bertrand Russell wrote, “but it is the most important achievement of our species.” In Religion and Science (1961), his popular polemic against religious dogma, he covers the ground from demonology to quantum physics, yet concedes that science cannot touch the profound feelings of personal religious experience.

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    Religion and Science

    2.3 hrs • 11/1/09 • Abridged
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